Monday, May 27, 2013

Pininfarina Spider Europa - 1984


 Pininfarina Spider Europa ....

In May 1930, the brothers Giovanni Battista Farina and based in Turin, Italy the " Società Anonima Carrozzeria Pinin Farina "that many still consider today as the most prestigious modern bodybuilders whose style school is being imitated around the world . Success will be immediate and already in 1932 " Pininfarina "was the official supplier of eight royal residences and numerous representatives of the aristocracy, industry and entertainment. His inventive mind was forms of expression into more of an art than metal worker-former, so that many manufacturers will use its innovative talent (Hispano-Suiza, Alfa Romeo, Audi, Cadillac, Lancia, Maserati, Ferrari , Fiat, Chevrolet, BMC, Peugeot, Volvo, Ford, Honda, Jaguar, Nissan, etc ...) ....


At Fiat, from a friendly people-oriented sedan, the 124 Sport Spider was a bit to the 60 that the Mazda MX-5 was the 90s, the concept of convertible fun and unpretentious. Invited once again to sign lines (under an "institutional" installed in the working time), Pininfarina has mostly sought to please the greatest number. No boldness in this seemingly trivial design but with the passage of time, one must admit that the years have not been taken on these forms "obvious" who seduced without really tired. Since 1966, the success of the Fiat 124 Spider continues unabated and the car has undergone various changes primarily related to engine brand. The production line is finally transferred Pininfarina which renames the car Pininfarina Spider Europa . The transfer of production has the advantage of significantly increasing the level of equipment and finish. First, the quality of the plates used for the body is higher, the car is less susceptible to corrosion. But inside, the interior is plush, wood just decorate the dashboard and the fit of parts is more polished. At the rear, the optics are redrawn, wraparound bumpers are better integrated into the line, and the rims are more elegant ....


Boasting a coherent design, stunning Pininfarina Spider Europa also convinced its users that Latin origins were not usurped. Inaugurating the first engine "double tree" of wider communication (signed Aurelio Lampredi, formerly with Ferrari), the spider will also benefit from an excellent gearbox (4 or 5-speed, depending on the version), four brakes assisted disc and running gear "advanced" or very sophisticated. Technical range in relation to the honest performance of the model and contrasted with "rustic" solutions still preferred at the time of its main British rivals. Finally, the unusual Pininfarina Spider Europa will appeal to the public and will be even a nice extension that allowed him to hold his position until the mid-80s with a minimum of alterations circumstantial orchestrated by his regular bodybuilder became manufacturer-distributor .. ..


The Pininfarina Spider Europa sold under the Pininfarina brand offers a much more polished interior finish. More opulent appearance, these versions have redesigned optics, alloy wheels and wraparound bumpers that do not distort their shape too. It adapts a less casual and finishing materials are much more resistant to the ravages of time. The time pads are better and have a greater tendency to warp and wear prematurely under the action of sunlight. Nice consolation prize, the dashboard, well designed and full, enjoys a veneer of very good quality and a completely revised ergonomics. The driving position is perfect and the comfort of leather and carpet is really appreciable even in the roadster said playfully. In the end, nearly 200,000 copies were sold in Europe and the USA. It is more than enough to meet sustained demand, but, logically, it is the first series, the rarest, which are preferred by collectors. Today as yesterday, the odds of the Pininfarina Spider Europa actually one convertibles Vintage Classic the most affordable on the market of the former, and it is also one of the most frequentable everyday ....


Several engines have marked the career of the drawers Pininfarina Spider Europa oriented long. The 1400 and 1600 of the first generation (1966-1972) will appear, however, that 90 DIN hp, which may seem a fair bit today. More ambitious, the proposed 1608 cm3 from 1970 claims tidy output of 110 horsepower at 6,400 revolutions / minute, a flattering performance for engine mass born more than 30 years. Wiser in some respects, the engines for second and third generation (1592, 1756 and 1995 cm3) are derived for their share of the 132 series but their architecture retains distribution dual overhead cam head of their predecessors. Designed by the highly skilled Aurelio Lampredi these 4 cylinders are all characterized by their robust constitution and their propensity to hold high speeds without fail. Properly maintained, these engines are eligible for more than 200,000 miles without major problems. In 1983, the 2-liter engine with supercharger which is assigned to him and with 135 horsepower at 6,400 revolutions / minute offers far superior driving pleasure. Models 2 liter injection (versions Pininfarina Spider Europa ) appear more versatile and easier to live with on a daily basis ....



Specifications :

    Engine: 4 cylinders
    Displacement: 1995 cm3
    Power: 135 horsepower at 6,400 revolutions / minute
    Torque: 250 Nm at 5500 t / mn
    Speed: 185 km / h


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AC Aceca Bristol - 1960


AC ACECA BRISTOL ....




Founded in 1904 by the Weller brothers in West Norwood in England, the company will take the name of Auto Carriers Ltd in 1911 and then to AC Cars in 1922. "AC" is more than a century old company that has experienced a chaotic life until the Second World War. The founders left the ship in 1922. The company was liquidated in 1929 and bought by the Hurlock brothers. Until the late 30s, AC is confined to the production of economic utilities. It was only after the Second World War that the company will diversify its range with small sedans and sports coupes. In the collective memory of auto enthusiasts, the name of AC is forever linked to that of the Cobra sports car of the 60 driven by a huge V8 Genuine Ford. " AC Cars Group Ltd. "has become over time a small British car manufacturer, today known for its sports cars ....


In the early 50s, after the war, recovery and hard and the firm is then limited to a facelift to the old 2-liter models seriously dated technically. To boost this aging range, the new owners proposed various sports versions, especially AC Ace roadster and its derivative off, the amazing AC Aceca . Ace was not an original creation of the firm AC. Ernie Bailey, the head of the body workshop AC, prompted the Hurlock brothers became interested in roadster made ​​by a local craftsman, John Tojeiro, a British engineer Portuguese origin. The body of the roadster was Tojeiro modern aspect, and especially lighter than the production of AC. The proposed Hurlock brothers John Tojeiro redeem his manufacturing rights of his roadster. The prototype was exhibited at London in October 1953. Compared to the car Tojeiro, the figure was slightly redesigned, with a more prominent grille and headlamps repositioned. The unusual AC Aceca was born ....


Officially launched in 1954 at Earls Court area, cut AC Aceca is dressed in an attractive aluminum body (where a featherweight 850 pounds) who has a family resemblance to the Aston Martin DB Mk III. This is a very elegant small closed coupe will be produced from 1954 until 1963. It is one year after the AC Ace roadster with which it shares the mechanics. This very small coupe Vintage Classic 2 +2 was a great road built by hand in the great British tradition. One notable feature of the car was the hatch at the rear, as it was the cut AC Aceca the second car after the 1953 Aston Martin DB2, to incorporate this unusual item on sports at the time. On the design side, the designer John Tojeiro had done an excellent job as the overall look is very harmonious with its elegant curves and bumps, but the aerodynamics party had not been set aside so far. The chassis of the beautiful AC Aceca Bristol adopted similar to that of the Italian Touring Superleggera structure, known for its excellent stiffness / weight ratio ....


For the production of cut AC Aceca Bristol , the firm moved to Thames Ditton with the motto not to compromise on the quality of manufacture of its cars, and it had a cost. At the time, the Aceca was 50% more expensive than a Jaguar XK 140, but well below an Aston Martin DB 2/4 its direct competitors, or at least those it affects. They have serial disc brakes at the front, while a full overdrive equipment. The beauty of the car is obvious with this subtle mix proportions supported by the spoked wheels, it is beautiful, elegant but also sporty and classy. The interior of the cut AC Aceca is also very neat, nothing is missing, at the height of the British reputation grade wood, leather upholstery color, comfortable carpet, even tabeau board is complete and put enhanced by a stunning aluminum wheel rim and wood. Only downside, the mechanics of the cut AC Aceca whose design dated back to the '20s quickly showed its limits in terms of power so that the small British firm eventually procure engines at Bristol from March 1956 ... .


Dice 1957 coupe AC Aceca Bristol Bristol receives the six-cylinder two-liter (1971 cm3) more efficient that its distribution is ensured by a central camshaft. Powered by three Solex carburetors, it now develops more than 130 horsepower and provides the AC so enviable performance as a top speed of 210 km / h. The AC chassis well designed no problem cashing the extra power. The Bristol Motor enjoyed at the time an excellent reputation. Extrapolated BMW prewar and seizure under spoils of war, this mechanism is built by the automotive division of the manufacturer "Bristol Aeroplane Company," which was reworked to increase power. It was machined with extreme care as identical to those of aviation standards, using the best materials. More powerful than the old AC motor, it also proved more suited to motorsport. The engine power of the cut AC Aceca Bristol evolved over time, reaching 140 horsepower. Very quickly, it was necessary in the range, at the expense of the old mechanical AC ....


Specifications :

    Engine: 6 cylinders
    Displacement: 1971 cm3
    Power: 140 hp
    Torque: 250 Nm at 5500 t / mn
    Speed: 210 km / h




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Sunday, May 26, 2013

Alfa Romeo Montreal - 1975


ALFA ROMEO MONTREAL ....




Since the 1900s, the name " Alfa Romeo "that needs no introduction, has largely marked the world's automotive footprint. This is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded June 24, 1910 in Milan since 1986 and is part of Fiat Group SpA, which includes all auto brands Fiat Group. It was previously owned by the Italian State, through its sprawling public holding IRI from 1933 to 1986. With a sporting achievements more appreciative, and an enviable commercial success, the company " Alfa Romeo "can also be proud to have built several really beautiful models become legendary see collector. In fact the best transalpine designers worked for Alfa, Touring, Bertone, Pininfarina, Zagato, Guigiaro, and some of their models are undeniable successes. With a glorious past competition, combined with talented drivers like Fangio, Alfa Romeo, reputable builder, back in the 60s on the front of the stage to revitalize its image significantly on the decline. In 1964, the company revives a racing stable and creates Autodelta, thanks to the tenacity of the engineer Carlo Chiti ....


At that time, the Alfa range maintains the flame as it can cut with Giulia GT / GTV and the preparation of the Alfasud, popular small cut occupies all resources. But it lacks a true luxury car. On the occasion of the Universal Exhibition in Montreal, Canada, the brand wants to hit hard with a spectacular sports coupe and thus revive its former glory. The project was launched, the car will be called " Alfa Romeo Montreal . To quickly finalize the car, Alfa Romeo uses a maximum of elements cut GTV, including mechanical and entrusts implementation to its historical partner Bertone. The project is set up very quickly on an Alfa Giulia and presentation takes place as planned at the Universal Exhibition of 1967 in Quebec base. Three years later, at the Geneva Motor Show, Alfa Romeo presents his final series car, and big surprise because it has a unique V8 engine placed on the front. The objective is to sell 10,000 cars, price / really attractive benefits. Even today, this beautiful Vintage Classic typically cut what became the beautiful Alfa Romeo Montreal is still listed among the Alfa Romeo's most exotic post-war is a growing appeal to the most discerning collectors ... .


Marcello Gandini, the most gifted student of the house Bertone has just signed his greatest masterpiece, the Lamborghini Miura, is responsible for creating a spectacular car and evoking great sportsmanship. He will express his talent for this Alfa Romeo Montreal in a slightly more conventional register and initiates the transition style that occurs between the design of the 60s and the 70s, the more nervous and aggressive. The car must be a four-seater and have a suitable box with an engine at the front, strong constraints that impose less close to a race car than a coupe of mass line. However, the final coup de crayon managed this difficult challenge and Montreal offers a sleek and sporty. Whether the air dummy Naca input type on the hood, perforated semi-fairing and retractable headlights, fake vents on the rear fenders (imagined for a central engine), or cutting its doors very close to the Miura, the Montreal does not leave indifferent and seduced by many style details online, it has an undeniable charm. The stunning Alfa Romeo Montreal was born in 1971 and definitely stands as flagship of the brand with a flamboyant style and a prestigious V8 derived from the Tipo 33 race ....


The interior of the unusual Alfa Romeo Montreal is also treated in the purest Italian style sport-luxury with a high level of quality and workmanship for the period. The low driving position and elongated evokes the world of GT, as well as the 3-spoke steering wheel with wood rim and large offset. Rear visibility is facilitated by the large glass tailgate and the interior is very bright. On the dashboard, the traditional two-meter Alfa Romeo facing the pilot and includes all gauges control mechanics, and the tachometer red zone which starts at 7000 r / min which sets the tone. Still marked the presence of numerous and abundant chrome leather give this cabin all the charm of sports before 1980. As the platform, the suspensions derived sedans the brand with independent suspension with coil springs and double-triangles incorporating telescopic shock absorbers at the front and a rigid axle with trailing arms at the rear "A" limit torque effects. Braking is provided by four ventilated discs, larger diameter at the rear than the front (284 mm against 274). Tires in 195/70 on rims 14 "Campagnolo Elektron magnesium alloy and aluminum are adapted to the available torque and traction seems pretty good. Finally, the beautiful Alfa Romeo Montreal is a bourgeois and comfortable sports coupe designed to everyday use despite its mechanical end of the competition and offering a ride comfort ....


Very communicative and really exciting mechanically, the amazing and beautiful Alfa Romeo Montreal is packed with character and extraordinary mechanical is particularly alert to rev up. But she relishes mainly on national best. Its engine is derived directly from the 2-liter V8 of the T33 competition, designed by Carlo Chiti, a new small-displacement V8, there is a 2L6, obtained by increasing the bore and stroke, block and light alloy cylinder heads with five crankshaft bearings fitted with counterweights and dry sump lubrication. In the Alfa tradition, the valves are actuated by dual overhead cams per cylinder head, itself driven by chain. The ignition is electronic and we also note the presence of a Spica mechanical injection system positioned at the center of V. However, unlike the engine competition out over 400 horsepower at 11,000 rev / min, the couple was privileged on the power here is limited to 200 horsepower at 7000 r / min. The maximum torque for its displays and 235 Nm is achieved at 4,750 r / min. The transmission is handled by a manual gearbox ZF 5-speed "sport" type, with the first at the bottom left that offers a successful staging and accurate locks. Beautiful to look at and listen to the great Alfa Romeo Montreal has found the art of delicate compromise between sportiness and luxury touring. This is an unusual car full of personality and a real nice Italian car, a collector of choice for those who know ....



Specifications :

    Engine: V8
    Capacity: 2.6 Litres
    Power: 200 hp at 7000 r / min
    Torque: 235 Nm at 4750 r / min
    Speed: 220 km / h


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Plymouth Road Runner Superbird - 1970


PLYMOUTH ROAD RUNNER SUPERBIRD ....




In 1928, the industrial undertaking " Walter P. Chrysler »Chrysler already has, Maxwell, and De Soto" and bought Dodge launches "Plymouth." Visionary and lucid, it will produce reliable and economical cars but technically advanced with the motto "the best at the best price", so before the war his name "Plymouth" will become the U.S. number three. After the war, in 1955, " Plymouth "will modernize its range to continue its success in the market for so-called mid-range family four door sedan economical and robust. A part of the mid-70s, the success helping, Plymouth will begin to diversify its range with cut and powerful and has a carefully designed sports convertibles. From the 90s, the range will be confused with "Chrysler" and "Dodge" and the differences will be very small depending on the options available, same platform, same engines, look for the error ....


Within the Chrysler Group, the merit of this expansion as bold as careful is largely in Plymouth which produced cars with technical features previously reserved for upper-class vehicles and at little cost. Ford and Chevrolet leaders of the time must now reckon with a formidable competitor. At the time of the great popularity of Muscle Cars, in the early 70s, to fight against the Mustang, the Daytona, Charger, Torino or other Barracuda, the company is launching its new weapon called " Plymouth Road Runner Superbird ". The goal is to sell affordable but competitive enough to be able to approve sports to develop a racing version capable of winning the NASCAR championship. Basically, the Plymouth Superbird was essentially a modification of the Plymouth Road Runner its predecessor. Engineers are in fact part of the same basic chassis and is simply extended to twenty centimeters. Axles and suspensions have not been modified in depth and only sports more different settings have been adopted. The braking has meanwhile been changed to more bite and better cooling. In fact compared to the old Road Runner, the new and very unusual Plymouth Road Runner Superbird especially shocking by its look ....


Indeed, the design of the beast leaves you speechless, it is the unusual, unheard of at the time. The very stunning Plymouth Road Runner Superbird really not go unnoticed. I must say that the car was among the first American car to be designed using a wind tunnel and computer analysis for aerodynamics at the time it was not very common. Where this result probably a little extravagant but was probably necessary to restore the aerodynamic qualities of a large American family that was largely devoid. Result, the Superbird features an aerodynamic bullet adding good twenty centimeters in length and containing the retractable headlights, a tapered body and smoothness to the extreme that ends on a wider rear wing mounted high on very large fins. This huge wing is two meters high to allow normal opening of the trunk of the trunk. Under aspects of spacecraft, Superbird hides his game as they have a drag coefficient (Cd) of just 0.28, better than most cars made today. Finally, the unusual and rather flashy look very stunning Plymouth Road Runner Superbird which seems awkward or even ostentatious, hides a welcome efficiency ....


Regarding the engine of the Plymouth Road Runner Superbird , engineers have typed in the Bank Group engines and offered a choice of three engines available as an option. All being American V8, the first called 440 Super Commando with a single carburetor four bodies developing 375 horsepower, the second called 440 Six Pack was mounted with three carburettors and developed 390 horsepower. At the top, could choose the mighty 426 Hemi, which it developed 425 horsepower at 5000 rpm / min and a torque of 490 lb-ft at 4000 rpm / min. Thus equipped, the Superbird dispensed outstanding performance standards at the time as 0 to 100 km / h shot in less than 5 seconds and about 20 seconds to run the kilometer standing start. This Hemi version produced less than 100 copies is a real rare piece highly sought after by collectors who reached astronomical sums when by chance he finds one for sale. If you have not won the lottery, go your way, the Plymouth Road Runner Superbird will never be a dream ....


Specifications :

    Engine: V8
    Engine: 4.7 L
    Power: 425 horsepower at 5000 rpm / min
    Torque: 490 lb.-ft. @ 4000 rpm / min
    Speed: 210 km / h
    Acceleration: 0 to 100 in 4'' 8
    Performance: 1000 m DA 20'' 8


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Alpine A310 V6 - 1980





ALPINE A 310 V6 ....

" Alpine "is a French brand of sports cars and racing was founded in 1955 in Dieppe. Later, the company collaborates with Gordini and Renault and became a specialist in GRP bodywork. In the history of the French automobile, the "brand Alpine "crystallized alone almost all the sportiness made ​​in France. Countless victory brand in the race even forged the legend. At this legendary builder, a model has been a huge part of the reputation of the firm on its own is the famous " Berlinetta ", the culmination of a dream that began in 1955 with the first coaches on the basis of four CV. In 1973, Renault became the majority in society Alpine which Jean Rédélé however, remains the CEO. The brand also won numerous rallies and launches the successor to the Berlinetta, the new model sports a superb GT 2 +2 coupe called A 310 ....


The stunning Alpine A 310 is the latest Alpine decided by Jean Rédélé. To assist the old A110 in the range it's task. Its mission is to gain a new customer who finds berlinetta too spartan and now have a family. Indeed, the A310 has a much higher comfort, and two small rear seats that allow him to take the qualifier 2 +2. Since the decision in 1967 of the A110 there was more in the range of four-seater coupe. Continuing the exact wheelbase of its predecessors, is 2.27 m, she finds herself in direct confrontation with the Porsche 911. The Alpine A310 was born in four-cylinder to its entry into the arena of GT with a 1.6-liter four-cylinder engine from the Renault 16 TS. But at the time, this is actually a GT with flattering performance obtained in a new level of comfort for a production Dieppoise. In 1977, Renault finally markets that should have been born in 1971, the unusual Alpine A310 V6 . More efficient, a V6 and a reworked line, which today has become a very popular Classic Vintage engine ....


It's the late 60s back as the first sketches of the beautiful and amazing Alpine A310 . These include drawings of Marcel Béligond that were selected. Unlike the round and typed lines of the sixties berlinetta A110 Alpine A310 is characterized by a very aerodynamic design and a rear compact. One of the unique features of this design is the battery of 6 lights that are hidden behind a Plexiglas window that spans the entire front. The taillights are taken from those of the Renault 8 Gordini. With the arrival of the V6 version of retouching style will appear as the headlights, but always under Plexiglas surface was reduced and are reduced to four square lights. Very nice rims Alpine three pins and three slots are a unique design. The rear inherits an aerodynamic spoiler to counter the increase in performance and thus aerodynamic constraints. The interior is also revised and gaining equipment and presentation with electric windows, laminated windscreen, seats "petal", radio again on the dashboard. Overall, all the little subtle and minor changes made ​​on the beautiful new coupe Alpine A310 V6 compared to the 4-cylinder provide a further improved the purity line ....


On the structure of the old A310 4-cylinder, and the house tradition, it is the backbone chassis that engineers will renew their confidence for the coupe Alpine A310 V6 . However, compared to the 4-cylinder version, it is reinforced to accommodate and support the heavier and larger V6. On this backbone chassis are fixed independent suspension consisting of combined coil springs / adjustable telescopic dampers. Anti-roll bars are mounted at the front (23 mm) and rear (26 mm against 24 mm on 4 cylinders). Always four discs fitted as standard to slow our national GT, but now the front discs are larger and ventilated. The steering rack runs the front wheels light alloy 13-inch pavement 185/70 VR 13, while the rear axle based on rims road 205/70 VR 13. In 1980, the car inherits the undercarriages of the Renault 5 Turbo, which will improve road behavior clearly. With the arrival of the V6 engine, everything will change, new hull, new interior, new suspension, and in 1979 a gearbox 5-speed, it is the French GT of the time, the great Alpine A310 V6 ....


Under the back cover of the amazing Alpine A310 V6 found the object of the controversy, the PRV V6 2.7 liter engine. This engine, Type 112/730 was taken from the Renault 30 TS, but compared to the placid sedan Billancourt, V6 whose opening angle is 90 ° is substantially modified, new domed pistons, exhaust specific, camshafts and valves unpublished, new fuel system, valve cover and oil pan specific. The power output is therefore a leap from the 4-cylinder and passes 150 horsepower at 6,000 t / min while torque rises to 20.7 million kg to 3500 t / mn. The performances are also on the rise with a top speed of 226 km / h, the 400 meter shot from a standing start in about 15 seconds per kilometer in about 28 seconds, great benefits for the time. In 1982 the catalog is enriched by a GT option package with flared fenders, spoiler and larger rear spoiler, 15-inch wheels with 225 tires front and rear 285. Upon request, an Alpine Alpine marketed as "A310 V6 Boulogne" with a special preparation made by the Alpine Centre Boulogne V6 2849 cm3, modified camshafts, two triple carburetors and 193 horsepower. 1985 is the last year of marketing Alpine A310 which are replaced by the controversial yet attractive GTA V6 and V6 GT Turbo. In the end, 9,276 copies of the great Alpine A310 V6 were manufactured from 1976 to 1985 ....



Specifications :

    Engine: V6
    Engine: 2.7 L
    Power: 150 horsepower at 6000 rpm / min
    Torque: 20.7 million kg to 3500 t / mn
    Speed: 226 km / h
    Acceleration: 0 to 100 in 14'' 8
    Performance: 1000 m DA 27'' 7


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Friday, May 24, 2013

Technology for Ecology



The global automotive industry comes slowly in a lean period and almost all manufacturers are affected except perhaps to a lesser extent manufacturers very expensive sports cars and luxury that manage to get a little better their cards Thurs The causes of this stagnation are manifold, oil prices, purchasing power, and law enforcement drastic, ecology, and so on ....

All major groups are involved and if the general trend is to make more economical and environmentally friendly cars to restore the urge to buy, it is clear that the solutions may be different. Some advocate the use of bioethanol such as Brazil. Japanese like Toyota or Honda follow the path of hybrid engines (gasoline and electricity). European manufacturers for their preferred solution removing the camshafts that control the valve opening because we know that the valves depends on the filling of cylinders. Hence the idea of valves controlled individually by a computer rather than a camshaft which would allow better management appropriate to the circumstances, promising up to twenty percent savings ....

Three technologies selective activation of the valves are in the study and therefore in competition, it's called the " camless engines . " The French Valéo working on a electromagnetic system or the valves are controlled by electromagnets. In Wolkswagen an electrical system consisting of small individual electric motors that control valves are studied. Italy Fiat preferred hydraulic system with oil under pressure and the solenoid valves for each valve. It is a cultural revolution as it takes to digest the many fans of beautiful mechanical that they no longer have an engine with double overhead cam head under the hood but camless, it will cry in the cottages ... .



Of course only a few hybrids are in circulation as to what is camless engines there is yet at the stage of study and prototype. In fact these future engines are expected between 2012 and 2015 because the challenge we face is very sharp, imagine that 6000 revolutions per minute the valves open and close 50 times per second, it makes you wonder about the accuracy diabolical management to get for seamless operation ....

 

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